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你亦可自選樂器,自製精心設計之禮品包。而 Kindermusik 亦新出一系列富教育性的音樂玩具 "DO-RE-ME & YOU",各產品經仔細設計及挑選,適合小孩寓學習於玩樂。請溜灠兒童產品網頁,或致電 23729068 查詢。 

幼兒音樂教育知多D!

Author : Miss Chung 

經常有朋友問我:「子女幾歲可以開始學彈琴」?我的答案往往令他們不太滿意,「五歲」。甚至有朋友以為我為了想自己的兒子先拔頭籌,故意欺騙他們,其實老早已密集式訓練兒子!我本著幼吾幼以及人之幼的心向大家說一遍,孩子不適宜過早學琴,雖然人是會有個別差異的,但普遍來說,五歲是一個比較合適的年齡。   

  

相信家長們大都會同意小朋友不宜過早寫字,因為他們的小肌肉還未完全發育。而彈琴所要求運用小肌肉的能力比寫字更高,因此我們應該理解孩子是不宜過早學琴的。   

  

有人針對「孩子年幼,手部力度不足」這個問題提供了一個辦法,就是讓小孩子用電子琴來上課和練習。而我的觀點是,鋼琴和電子琴的觸感是完全不同的,古人有說「學貴慎始」,當中的道理,值得家長深思!   

  

孩子過早學琴,由於力度不足,手部肌肉的協調能力亦不佳,容易導致養成錯誤的彈奏動作。彈奏動作不對,就無法奏出漂亮的音色,這可以解釋為何部份學生在五六級的階段總是學不上去,問題可能出自長久以來養成的錯誤彈奏動作!   

  

要避免過早學琴,但又希望孩子及早接受音樂教育,家長可以先讓孩子參加兒童音樂課程。而選擇音樂課程,應注意以下兩大原則:   

1. 學習活動是否配合學童的年齡及心理發展階段 (developmentally appropriate)   

2. 課程是否包括五方面的音樂學習經驗 (請參閱《我的孩子還小,學音樂?!學得來嗎?》一文)

Author : Auntie Wendy

Every day we are surrounded with music - it's in supermarkets and shopping malls, it's on TV, it's 'on-hold' on the telephone. However do we pay any attention to them? Most likely, we just feel that these are something nice to have and we don't even know or care what music they are playing.  

 

With this over-whelming load of auditory input, it is important to teach children how to be focused and discriminating listeners. Through series of exploratory musical games, children are taught to find out what they hear; what type of sound it is; whether they can reproduce the sound and whether the sound has any musical connotation.  

 

Therefore, music to children is not just sound or noise any more. Through listening and thinking, children are able to extract information of what they hear and become purposeful in their listening.

Author : Auntie Wendy 

We are all gifted with a natural musical instrument - our singing voice. It is through developmentally appropriate training that children will become competent singers.   

  

Young children start by exploring vocal sounds using samples from their surrounding, like animal sounds or sounds from the nature. They will then learn about the difference between speaking and singing voices. From then onwards, they gradually learn to match and produce specific pitches. Normally at the age of 5, children can sing songs in fairly accurate pitches.   

  

Young children's vocal range is still very limited and therefore, songs have to be specially chosen so that children can sing comfortably. That's why most of the nursery songs are simple, short and repetitive. As young children's vocal development becomes more mature at the age of 7 or 8, songs with wider vocal range and more difficult rhythmic patterns are introduced.

Author : Auntie Grace 

經常聽到父母們談論音樂天分這個話題,有些媽媽會說:「我的孩子很有音樂天分,他會隨音樂節奏搖擺身體。」有些則說:「我的孩子唱歌會走音,肯定沒有音樂天分。」究竟,音樂天分是怎麼的一回事?   

其實,對音樂的基本反應是與生俱來的,這已經得到實驗研究的証明。約24週的胎兒已經有聽覺能力,而我們對聲音的高低、聲量的大小,發聲時間的長短、甚至聲音的質感等我們都天生具有感知和分辨的能力。而早期的音樂行為,例如對聲響的辨別、隨音樂節奏擺動或者是唱歌等,都是自然而來的。(Sloboda,1985) 以此角度來看,正如學者Turner所言,我們的音樂天分都是天賦的。(Turner,2004) 可是,這些天賦的音樂感如同一粒小種籽,若不加以培育,它便會隨著年齡的增長而逐漸減弱。(Gordon,1997)   

  

參考書目:   

Sloboda, J.A. (1985). The Musical Mind:The Cognitive Psychelogy of Music. Oxford: Clarendon Press.   

Turner, Mark E. (2004). Research Informs Our Practice. Early Childhood Connections, winter.   

Gordon, Edwin E. (1997). Learning Sequences in Music. Chicago: GIA Publishers.

Author : Auntie Grace 

早期教育一般定義為對0-8歲孩童實施的教育。兒童在這個階段的學習模式是把知識建構自自身的經歷(Bredekamp and Copple, Editors,1997) ,意思是孩子會把經驗轉化成概念,經過內化(internalized)的過程以後,便會產生理解、應用和創作的能力。所以,只要有條件充足的音樂環境讓小朋友經歷,孩子當然有能力學音樂!   

  

一般香港人對音樂的認識層面只停留在演奏方面,大家以為讓小朋友彈鋼琴、拉小提琴或者吹奏管樂器即是讓他學音樂。但事實上,我們應該選擇一個較全面,有組織及系統化的方式讓小朋友經驗音樂。根據學者的意見,音樂的學習經驗可以分成五方面,它們看似各自獨立,實際上卻是相輔相承,互相補助的。它們分別是音樂聆聽、律動、歌唱、樂器彈奏以及創作。(Haines and Gerber, 2000) 與其讓孩子對音樂瞎子摸象,不如讓他快快樂樂的去經驗一下什麼是音樂。   

  

參考書目:   

Bredekamp, Sue and Copple, Card, Editors. (1997). Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs. Washington: National Association for the Education of Young Children.   

Haines, B. Joan E. & Gerber, Linda L. (2000). Leading Young Children to Music. USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Author : Auntie Grace 

朋友,你認為音樂是什麼呢?是一堆聲響?且細讀本文,或許你會另有一番想法。   

音樂是情感的表達,它可以釋放你澎湃的激情,撫慰你失落的心靈。   

音樂是一門具美學價值的藝術,可以讓我們提昇情操,淨化心靈。   

音樂是生活調劑品,增添日常生活的姿彩。   

音樂是人類非言語的溝通工具,讓不同種族衝破語言的隔膜。   

音樂是儀式或宗教禮儀中不可或缺的部份,它是我們人類文明史上的見証人。   

音樂是人類文化的傳遞者,它能反映特定時代的社會面貌及情懷,讓我們打破時空地域的界限,身處於香港斗室之內而仍然能夠欣賞歐洲古典派的工整對稱美。   

音樂是一種傳播工具,能協助確立道德及社會規範,所以我們在幼稚園時代就會唱「過馬路要小心」、「刷牙歌」等這些歌曲。   

音樂是商品,在人類的商業世界裡,它有自己活躍的供求市場,並造就不同種類的工作岡位。無論你到音樂廳、看電影、買唱片或是下載電話鈴聲,你都直接或間接地參與音樂的商業活動。   

朋友,閱文至此,你會重新估計音樂的價值嗎?   

  

參考書目   

  

1. Campbell, P.S. and Scott-Kassner, C. (2002). Music in childhood: From preschool through the elementary grades. (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.   

2. Clayton, M., Herbert, T., and Middleton, R., editors, (2003). The Cultural Study ofMusic: a critical introduction. New York and London: Routledge.   

3. Rice, Timothy (2003). Time, Place, and Metaphor in Musical Experience and Ethnography. Ethnomusicology 47(2) 151-179.   

4. Street, John. (2001). The Cambridge Companion to Pop and Rock. UK: Cambridge University Press.   

5. Supicik, I. (1987). Music in Society: A Guide to the Sociology of Music. Pendragon Press.

Author : Miss Chung 

 

經常有朋友問我:「子女幾歲可以開始學彈琴」?我的答案往往令他們不太滿意,「五歲」。甚至有朋友以為我為了想自己的兒子先拔頭籌,故意欺騙他們,其實老早已密集式訓練兒子!我本著幼吾幼以及人之幼的心向大家說一遍,孩子不適宜過早學琴,雖然人是會有個別差異的,但普遍來說,五歲是一個比較合適的年齡。   

  

相信家長們大都會同意小朋友不宜過早寫字,因為他們的小肌肉還未完全發育。而彈琴所要求運用小肌肉的能力比寫字更高,因此我們應該理解孩子是不宜過早學琴的。   

  

有人針對「孩子年幼,手部力度不足」這個問題提供了一個辦法,就是讓小孩子用電子琴來上課和練習。而我的觀點是,鋼琴和電子琴的觸感是完全不同的,古人有說「學貴慎始」,當中的道理,值得家長深思!   

  

孩子過早學琴,由於力度不足,手部肌肉的協調能力亦不佳,容易導致養成錯誤的彈奏動作。彈奏動作不對,就無法奏出漂亮的音色,這可以解釋為何部份學生在五六級的階段總是學不上去,問題可能出自長久以來養成的錯誤彈奏動作!   

  

要避免過早學琴,但又希望孩子及早接受音樂教育,家長可以先讓孩子參加兒童音樂課程。而選擇音樂課程,應注意以下兩大原則:   

1. 學習活動是否配合學童的年齡及心理發展階段 (developmentally appropriate)   

2. 課程是否包括五方面的音樂學習經驗 (請參閱《我的孩子還小,學音樂?!學得來嗎?》一文)

Author : Miss Chung 

The definition of music literacy is "The ability of read, write and think in musical sound." (Gromko and Rusell, 2002) Behind this definition, there is a two-way process indeed --- musical sounds converted into representations and the reversal, starting with symbols and converting back into music. To translate music into symbols, the sounds have to be listened carefully, sorted, analyzed and finally transformed into another media. For the reverse process, we have to bring symbolic forms into life as music requires to interpret in sound, to imagine aurally in advance of hearing, to have musical ideas and make musical choices. (Young and Glover, 1998)   

  

Reference   

Gromko, J. Esatlund & Rusell, Christine. (2002). Relationship Among Young Children's Aural Perception, Listening Condition and Accurate Reading of Graphic Listening Maps. Journal of Research in Music Education, 50(4), 333-342.   

Young, Susan & Glover, Joanna (1998). Music in the early years. London: The Falmer Press.

Author : Miss Chung 

Most children are born with the ability to hear. And there are three aspects of listening ability. The first, auditory awareness, is concerned with the simple recognition of the presence of sound. Such as a little baby turns his head in the direction of the sound of dripping water. The second, auditory discrimination, requires the ability to distinguish between sounds and to group them into categories such as fast - slow, loud - soft, high - low, etc. For instance, a child runs to the front of the door but not the telephone when he hears the doorbell. The third, auditory sequencing, deals with the ability to reproduce a sequence of sounds in the correct order and therefore requires the exercise of auditory memory as well. When a child imitates what teacher claps accurately, he is using auditory sequencing. (Haines and Gerber, 2000)   

  

Listening ability is essential for us to learn music. We will make use of all three aspects mentioned above in music learning.   

  

Reference   

Haines, B. Joan E. & Gerber, Linda L. (2000). Leading Young Children to Music. USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Author : Auntie Wen 

If you have a chance to go to any music class for 3-years old and under, you may find the following scenario quite familiar: some babies and toddlers shake or bounce to the music, some just sit there watching and not making a sound, and some even cry and want to get out of the room. So you may wonder, what do babies and toddlers learn in music lessons? Most of them can hardly speak a proper sentence and some even can't walk. How can they benefit from a weekly 45-minute class?   

  

Yes, you cannot just depend on the weekly lessons and expect your children to become musical. That is why the active involvement of parents and caregivers are so important at this tender age. Adults come to music lessons with their children to learn about the characteristics of children's developmental stage, activities that are appropriate to stimulate their growth and to share the joy of making music together. Adults then need to continue the activities at home. Just like learning any musical instrument, one needs to practice in order to reinforce and strengthen one's skill. It is likewise for young children to repeat those activities and songs learnt from the class during the week. This is the way how children learn at this stage - by repetition. Therefore the 45-minute music lesson is in fact, a workshop for parents and caregivers to learn more about their children's developmental features and the appropriate activities to do with their children at home.   

  

Early childhood music education is not just for musical development, it is a whole-child development. It is through music and musical activities that children develop social, emotional, literacy, cognitive and physical skills. Most importantly, we want children to have a positive experience in music so that they will have a life-long love of music for the years to come.

 

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